Home Simulation Software Architecture in association with Robot Frank
in development: Kernel, Nozzle, Patent Download & Documentation Resource: Script

Patent


Relevant Patents - Robotic surgical tool with ultrasound cauterizing and cutting instrument
- Hemodynamic Reserve Monitor and Hemodialysis Control
- Surgical simulator system

- [Summary] Surgical Robot of Major Companies


Robotic surgical tool with ultrasound cauterizing and cutting instrument top

[US 6,783,524] Anderson et al., Intuitive Surgical, Inc.

A surgical instrument for enhancing robotic surgery generally includes an elongate shaft with an ultrasound probe, an end effector at the distal end of the shaft, and a base at the proximal end of the shaft. The end effector includes an ultrasound probe tip and the surgical instrument is generally configured for convenient positioning of the probe tip within a surgical site by a robotic surgical system. Ultrasound energy delivered by the probe tip may be used to cut, cauterize, or achieve various other desired effects on tissue at a surgical site. In various embodiments, the end effector also includes a gripper, for gripping tissue in cooperation with the ultrasound probe tip. The base is generally configured to removably couple the surgical instrument to a robotic surgical system and to transmit forces from the surgical system to the end effector, through the elongate shaft. A method for enhancing robotic surgery generally includes coupling the surgical instrument to a robotic surgical system, positioning the probe tip in contact with tissue at a surgical site, and delivering ultrasound energy to the tissue.

1. A surgical instrument, for use with a robotic surgical system, the robotic surgical system providing master-slave telesurgery in response to input from a surgeon, the surgical instrument comprising:
an elongate shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, the elongate shaft including an ultrasound probe;
an end effector disposed at the distal end, the end effector including an ultrasound probe tip of the ultrasound probe; and
a base disposed at the proximal end for removably connecting the surgical instrument to the robotic surgical system;
wherein the elongate shaft is configured to rotate in relation to the base about an axis drawn from the proximal end to the distal end; and
wherein the base includes:
at least two shafts rotatably mounted to the base, each of the shafts having two ends, at least one of the ends of one of the shafts disposed to engage a corresponding interface member on the robotic surgical system;
at least two spools, each spool being mounted on one of the shafts;
at least one cable for connecting two of the spools; and
a rotating member coupled to the cable and to the elongate shaft, the rotating member being configured to rotate the elongate shaft in response to movements of the interface member, the at least two shafts, the at least two spools and the at least one cable.
2. A surgical instrument as in claim 1, wherein the base further comprises an ultrasound source connector for connecting the ultrasound probe to an external ultrasound source.
3. A surgical instrument as in claim 1, wherein the base further comprises an internal ultrasound source for providing ultrasound energy to the ultrasound probe.
4. A surgical instrument as in claim 1, wherein the ultrasound probe further comprises:
an ultrasound transducer for generating ultrasonic vibrations; and
at least one amplifying horn for amplifying the ultrasonic vibrations.
5. The surgical instrument of claim 1, wherein the base comprises a latch mechanism that permits quick connection and disconnection with the robotic surgical system.
6. The surgical instrument of claim 5, wherein the latch mechanism comprises at least two latches.
7. The surgical instrument of claim 6, wherein each latch comprises a retractable finger.
8. The surgical instrument of claim 7, wherein the retractable finger is a spring-loaded slidable finger.
9. A surgical instrument for use with a robotic surgical system, the robotic surgical system providing master-slave telesurgery in response to input from a surgeon, the surgical instrument comprising:
an elongate shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, the elongate shaft including an ultrasound probe;
an end effector disposed at the distal end, the end effector including:
an ultrasound probe tip of the ultrasound probe; and
a gripping member hingedly attached to the end effector for gripping tissue in cooperation with the ultrasound probe tip;
at least one force transmitting member for transmitting one or more forces between the robotic surgical system and the gripping member to move the gripping member; and
a base disposed at the proximal end for removably connecting the surgical instrument to the robotic surgical system;
wherein the elongate shaft is configured to rotate in relation to the base about an axis drawn from the proximal end to the distal end; and
wherein the at least one transmitting member comprises:
at least two shafts rotatably mounted to the base, each of the shafts having two ends, at least one of the ends of one of the shafts disposed to engage a corresponding interface member on the robotic surgical system;
at least two spools, each spool being mounted on one of the shafts;
at least one cable for connecting two of the spools; and
an actuator rod coupled to the cable and to the gripping member and extending through the elongate shaft, the actuator rod being configured to move the gripping member in response to movements of the interface member, the at least two shafts, the at least two spools and the at least one cable.
10. A surgical instrument for use with a robotic surgical system, the robotic surgical system providing master-slave telesurgery in response to input from a surgeon, the surgical instrument comprising:
an elongate instrument probe assembly having a proximal end and a distal end, the distal end insertable through a minimally invasive surgical incision into the body of a patient; and
an instrument base coupled to the instrument probe assembly adjacent the proximal end, the instrument base comprising an instrument interface assembly removably connectable to the robotic surgical system and engagable with at least one interface actuator of the robotic surgical system so as to receive at least one input actuation, the interface assembly being coupled to the instrument probe assembly so as to move at least a portion of the instrument probe assembly in at least one degree of freedom;
wherein the instrument base comprises:
at least two shafts rotatably mounted to the base, each of the shafts having two ends, at least one of the ends of one of the shafts disposed to engage a corresponding interface member on the robotic surgical system;
at least two spools, each spool being mounted on one of the shafts;
at least one cable for connecting two of the spools; and
a rotating member coupled to the cable and to the elongate shaft, the rotating member being configured to rotate the elongate shaft in response to movements of the interface member, the at least two shafts, the at least two spools and the at least one cable.
11. The surgical instrument of claim 10, further comprising an end effector coupled to the instrument probe assembly adjacent the distal end, the end effector having at least one end effector member configured to engage tissue employing a medical energy modality.
12. The surgical instrument of claims 11, wherein:
the surgical instrument further comprises at least one energy connector device engageable to operatively communicate with a medical energy system; and
the instrument probe assembly further comprises at least one energy conduction element operatively coupled to the energy connector device and extending between the proximal end and the distal end, the conduction element coupled to the end effector member to communicate the medical energy modality to the engaged tissue.
13. The surgical instrument of claim 12, wherein the medical energy modality is ultrasound treatment energy.
14. The surgical instrument of claim 12, wherein the medical energy modality is ultrasound diagnostic energy.
15. The surgical instrument of claim 12, wherein the medical energy modality is electrosurgical treatment energy.
16. The surgical instrument of claim 12, wherein the instrument probe assembly includes an ultrasonic treatment probe assembly, and the medical energy modality is ultrasound treatment energy.
17. The surgical instrument of claim 12, wherein:
the instrument probe assembly further comprises an ultrasonic transducer coupled to the energy connection device, the energy connection device operatively connectable to a surgical ultrasound generator,
the conduction element further comprises an ultrasonic conduction core coupled to the transducer, and
the end effector member further comprises an ultrasonic treatment probe tip coupled to the ultrasonic conduction core and configured to engage tissue to transmit ultrasonic energy to the engaged tissue.
18. The surgical instrument of claim 17, wherein the instrument probe assembly further comprises at least one grip drive element extending between the distal end and the proximal end and coupled to the interface assembly, the interface assembly being configured to move the drive element in response to the at least one actuation input; and
the end effector further comprises a grip member pivotally coupled adjacent the ultrasonic treatment probe tip, the grip member coupled to the drive element so as to pivot in response to movement of the drive member to be closeable against the probe tip so as to engage tissue therebetween.
19. The surgical instrument of claim 17, wherein:
at least a distal portion of the instrument probe assembly including the end effector defines an elongate instrument shaft portion extending distally from the instrument base, at least the instrument shaft portion of the instrument probe assembly being coupled to the instrument base so as to be rotatable about a instrument axis;
the instrument includes at least one shaft drive element coupled to the interface assembly, the interface assembly being configured to move the shaft drive element in response to the at least one actuation input; and
the shaft drive element being coupled to at least the instrument shaft portion of the instrument probe assembly so as to cause at least the instrument shaft portion to rotate about the instrument axis in response to movement of the shaft drive element.



Hemodynamic Reserve Monitor and Hemodialysis Control top

[US20120330117A1] Grudic et al., University of Colorado Boulder

Tools and techniques for estimating a probability that a patient is bleeding or has sustained intravascular volume loss (e.g., due to hemodialysis or dehydration) and/or to estimate a patient's current hemodynamic reserve index, track the patient's hemodynamic reserve index over time, and/or predict a patient's hemodynamic reserve index in the future. Tools and techniques for estimating and/or predicting a patient's dehydration state. Tools and techniques for controlling a hemodialysis machine based on the patient's estimated and/or predicted hemodynamic reserve index.

1. A system, comprising:
one or more sensors to obtain physiological data from a patient; and
a computer system in communication with the one or more sensors, the computer system comprising:
one or more processors; and
a computer readable medium in communication with the one or more processors, the computer readable medium having encoded thereon a set of instructions executable by the computer system to perform one or more operations, the set of instructions comprising:
instructions for receiving the physiological data from the one or more sensors;
instructions for analyzing the physiological data;
instructions for estimating a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
instructions for displaying, on a display device, an estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
2. A method, comprising:
monitoring, with one or more sensors, physiological data of a patient;
analyzing, with a computer system, the physiological data;
estimating, with the computer system, a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
displaying, with a display device, an estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
estimating a dehydration state of the patient.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein the physiological data comprises waveform data, and wherein estimating the hemodynamic reserve index comprises:
comparing the waveform data with a plurality of sample waveforms, each of the sample waveforms corresponding to a different value of the hemodynamic reserve index to produce a similarity coefficient expressing a similarity between the waveform data and each of the sample waveforms;
normalizing the similarity coefficients for each of the sample waveforms; and
summing the normalized similarity coefficients to produce an estimated hemodynamic reserve index value for the patient.
5. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
predicting, with the computer system, the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient at one or more time points in the future, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
displaying, with the display device, a predicted hemodynamic reserve index of the patient at one or more points in the future.
6. The method of claim 2, wherein the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient is based on a fixed time history of monitoring the physiological data of the patient.
7. The method of claim 2, wherein the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient is based on a dynamic time history of monitoring the physiological data of the patient.
8. The method of claim 2, wherein the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient is based on a baseline estimate of the patient's hemodynamic reserve index established when the patient is euvolemic.
9. The method of claim 2, wherein the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient is not based on a baseline estimate of the patient's hemodynamic reserve index established when the patient is euvolemic.
10. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
normalizing the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient relative to a normative normal blood volume value corresponding to euvolemia and a normative minimum blood volume value corresponding to cardiovascular collapse;
wherein displaying the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient comprises displaying the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the normative normal blood volume value corresponding to euvolemia is 1 and the normative minimum blood volume value corresponding to cardiovascular collapse is 0.
12. The method of claim 10, wherein displaying the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient comprises displaying a graphical plot showing the normalized normal blood volume value, the normalized minimum blood volume value, and the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index relative to the normalized normal blood volume value, the normalized minimum blood volume value
13. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
normalizing the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient relative to a normative normal blood volume value corresponding to euvolemia, a normative excess blood volume value corresponding to circulatory overload, and a normative minimum blood volume value corresponding to cardiovascular collapse;
wherein displaying the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient comprises displaying the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the normative excess blood volume value corresponding to circulatory overload is 1, the normative normal blood volume value corresponding to euvolemia is 0, and the normative minimum blood volume value corresponding to cardiovascular collapse is −1.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein the normative excess blood volume value corresponding to circulatory overload is >1, the normative normal blood volume value corresponding to euvolemia is 1, and the normative minimum blood volume value corresponding to cardiovascular collapse is 0.
16. The method of claim 13, wherein displaying the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient comprises displaying a graphical plot showing the normalized excess blood volume value, the normalized normal blood volume value, the normalized minimum blood volume value, and the normalized estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index relative to the normalized excess blood volume value, the normalized normal blood volume value, the normalized minimum blood volume value.
17. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
determining a probability that the patient is bleeding; and
displaying, with the display device, an indication of the probability that the patient is bleeding.
18. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
determining a probability that the patient is bleeding; and
adjusting the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on the probability that the patient is bleeding.
19. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
selecting, with the computer system, a recommended treatment option for the patient; and
displaying, with the display device, the recommended treatment option.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the recommended treatment option is selected from the group consisting of: optimizing hemodynamics of the patient, a ventilator adjustment, an intravenous fluid adjustment, transfusion of blood or blood products to the patient, infusion of volume expanders to the patient, a change in medication administered to the patient, a change in patient position, and surgical therapy.
21. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
repeating the operations of monitoring physiological data of the patient, analyzing the physiological data, and estimating the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, to produce a new estimated hemodynamic reserve index of the patient;
wherein displaying the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient comprises updating a display of the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index to show the new estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index, in order to display a plot of the estimated hemodynamic reserve index over time.
22. The method of claim 2, wherein at least one of the one or more sensors is selected from the group consisting of a blood pressure sensor, an intracranial pressure monitor, a central venous pressure monitoring catheter, an arterial catheter, an electroencephalograph, a cardiac monitor, a transcranial Doppler sensor, a transthoracic impedance plethysmograph, a pulse oximeter, a near infrared spectrometer, a ventilator, an accelerometer, an electrooculogram, a transcutaneous glucometer, an electrolyte sensor, and an electronic stethoscope.
23. The method of claim 2, wherein the physiological data comprises blood pressure waveform data.
24. The method of claim 2, wherein the physiological data comprises plethysmograph waveform data.
25. The method of claim 2, wherein the physiological data comprises photoplethysmograph (PPG) waveform data.
26. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
estimating a first value of the hemodynamic reserve index when the patient is in a first position;
estimating a second value of the hemodynamic reserve index when the patient is in a second position; and
estimating a sensitivity of the patient to volume loss based on a difference between the first value and the second value.
27. The method of claim 26, wherein the first position is selected from the group consisting of lying prone and sitting, and wherein the second position is selected from the group consisting of sitting and standing.
28. The method of claim 2, wherein analyzing the physiological data comprises:
analyzing the physiological data against a pre-existing model.
29. The method of claim 28, further comprising:
generating the pre-existing model.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein generating the pre-existing model comprises:
receiving data pertaining to one or more physiological parameters of a test subject to obtain a plurality of physiological data sets;
directly measuring one or more physiological states of the test subject with a reference sensor to obtain a plurality of physiological state measurements; and
correlating the received data with the physiological state measurements of the test subject.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the one or more physiological states comprises reduced circulatory system volume.
32. The method of claim 31, further comprising:
inducing the physiological state of reduced circulatory system volume in the test subject.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein inducing the physiological state comprises subjecting the test subject to lower body negative pressure (“LBNP”).
34. The method of claim 32, wherein inducing the physiological state comprises subjecting the test subject to dehydration.
35. The method of claim 30, wherein the one or more physiological states comprises a state of cardiovascular collapse or near-cardiovascular collapse.
36. The method of claim 30, wherein the one or more physiological states comprises a state of euvolemia.
37. The method of claim 30, wherein the one or more physiological states comprises a state of hypervolemia.
38. The method of claim 30, wherein the one or more physiological states comprises a state of dehydration.
39. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
controlling operation of hemodialysis equipment, based at least in part on the estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein controlling operation of the hemodialysis equipment comprises adjusting an ultra-filtration rate of the hemodialysis equipment.
41. The method of claim 30, wherein correlating the received data with the physiological state measurements of the test subject comprises:
identifying a most predictive set of signals Sk out of a set of signals s1, s2, . . . , SD for each of one or more outcomes ok, wherein the most-predictive set of signals Sk corresponds to a first data set representing a first physiological parameter, and wherein each of the one or more outcomes ok represents a physiological state measurement;
autonomously learning a set of probabilistic predictive models ôk =Mk(Sk), where ôk is a prediction of outcome ok derived from a model Mk that uses as inputs values obtained from the set of signals Sk; and
repeating the operation of autonomously learning incrementally from data that contains examples of values of signals s1, s2, . . . , sD and corresponding outcomes o1, o2, . . . , oK.
42. An apparatus, comprising:
a computer readable medium having encoded thereon a set of instructions executable by one or more computers to perform one or more operations, the set of instructions comprising:
instructions for receiving physiological data from one or more sensors;
instructions for analyzing the physiological data;
instructions for estimating a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
instructions for displaying, on a display device, an estimate of the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
43. A method, comprising:
monitoring, with one or more sensors, physiological data of a patient;
analyzing, with a computer system, the physiological data;
estimating, with the computer system, a dehydration state of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
displaying, on a display device, an estimate of the dehydration state of the patient.
44. The method of claim 43, further comprising:
predicting the dehydration state of the patient at one or more future points in time.
45. The method of claim 43, wherein estimating a dehydration state of the patient comprises:
estimating a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
estimating the dehydration state based on the estimated hemodynamic reserve index of the patient.
46. A method, comprising:
monitoring, with one or more sensors, physiological data of a patient;
analyzing, with a computer system, the physiological data;
estimating, with the computer system, a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
controlling operation of hemodialysis equipment based on the estimated hemodynamic reserve index.
47. The method of claim 46, further comprising:
predicting the hemodynamic reserve index of the patient at one or more future points in time.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein controlling operation of the hemodialysis equipment further comprises controlling operation of the hemodialysis equipment based on the predicted hemodynamic reserve index of the patient at one or more future points in time.
49. The method of claim 46, wherein controlling operation of hemodialysis equipment comprises providing, with the computer system, instructions to a human operator of the hemodialysis equipment.
50. A system, comprising:
a hemodialysis machine;
one or more sensors to obtain physiological data from a patient; and
a computer system in communication with the one or more sensors and the hemodialysis machine, the computer system comprising:
one or more processors; and
a computer readable medium in communication with the one or more processors, the computer readable medium having encoded thereon a set of instructions executable by the computer system to perform one or more operations, the set of instructions comprising:
instructions for receiving the physiological data from the one or more sensors;
instructions for analyzing the physiological data;
instructions for estimating a hemodynamic reserve index of the patient, based on analysis of the physiological data; and
instructions for controlling operation of hemodialysis machine based on the estimated hemodynamic reserve index.
51. The system of claim 50, wherein the computer system is incorporated within the hemodialysis machine.



Surgical simulator system top

[US7866983B2] Hemphill et al., East Tennessee State University Research Foundation

Disclosed is a surgical simulator for teaching, practicing, and evaluating surgical techniques. Such a simulator may comprise a cassette of organs, blood vessels, and tissues that may be disposable. The simulator also comprises a hemodynamic simulator and a frame assembly, the frame assembly providing support for the cassette of organs as well as a fluid conduit through which simulated blood flow from the hemodynamic simulator may be connected to the blood vessels of the organs and related tissues. The hemodynamic simulator provides adjustable and variable pressures to the arteries and veins, as well as variable pulse rates, which can be programmed at settings chosen by an instructor or user.

1. A surgical simulator comprising a frame assembly, a hemodynamic simulator fluidly connected to the frame assembly, and an anatomical cassette fluidly connected to the frame assembly and hemodynamic simulator;
wherein the hemodynamic simulator is adapted to provide variable pressure flow of simulated blood to simulated arteries in the anatomical cassette and continuous pressure flow of simulated blood to simulated veins in the anatomical cassette; and
wherein the surgical simulator is programmable to provide variable rates of simulated blood pulse and pressure.
2. The surgical simulator of claim 1 further comprising a recording system.
3. A surgical simulator as in claim 2 wherein the recording system comprises at least one visible/infrared spectrum camera.
4. A surgical simulator as in claim 1 wherein the anatomical cassette comprises a uterus, ligaments, and blood vessels.
5. A hemodynamic simulator as in claim 1 comprising at least one air compressor and at least one pressurized fluid reservoir or accumulator.
6. A hemodynamic simulator as in claim 5 further comprising at least one regulator.
7. A surgical simulator, comprising:
a frame assembly;
a hemodynamic simulator comprising at least one air compressor and at least one pressurized fluid reservoir or accumulator, the hemodynamic simulator fluidly connected to the frame assembly; and
an anatomical cassette comprising simulated arteries, veins, and one or more of organs, tissues, and ligaments of an anatomical system, the anatomical cassette fluidly connected to the frame assembly and the hemodynamic simulator;
wherein the frame assembly is adapted to be a conduit through which simulated blood may flow between the hemodynamic simulator and the anatomical cassette; and
wherein the hemodynamic simulator is adapted to provide variable pressure flow of simulated blood to the arteries in the anatomical cassette and continuous pressure flow of simulated blood to the veins in the anatomical cassette; and
wherein the hemodynamic simulator is programmable to provide variable rates of simulated blood pulse and pressure.
8. A surgical simulator as in claim 7, wherein the anatomical cassette comprises simulated arteries, veins, and one or more of organs, tissues, and ligaments of an anatomical system associated with the mammalian abdominopelvic region.
9. A surgical simulator as in claim 8, wherein the anatomical system is the human reproductive system.
10. A surgical simulator as in claim 9, wherein the anatomical cassette further comprises one or more of simulated arteries, veins, organs, tissues, or ligaments of another anatomical system that is proximally positioned in the human body to the reproductive system.
11. A surgical simulator as in claim 10, wherein the reproductive system is the female reproductive system and the anatomical cassette comprises one or more of simulated uterus, ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, cervix, bladder, peritoneum, and omentum.
12. A surgical simulator as in claim 10, comprising a simulated pelvis and optionally, one or two simulated legs.
13. A surgical simulator as in claim 7, wherein the anatomical cassette comprises simulated arteries, veins, and one or more of organs, tissues, and ligaments of an anatomical system associated with the human thoracic region.
14. A surgical simulator, comprising:
a frame assembly;
a hemodynamic simulator comprising at least one air compressor and at least one pressurized fluid reservoir or accumulator, the hemodynamic simulator fluidly connected to the frame assembly; and
an anatomical cassette comprising (i) simulated arteries, veins, and one or more of organs, tissues, and ligaments of a human reproductive system; and (ii) one or more of simulated arteries, veins, organs, tissues, or ligaments of another anatomical system that is proximally positioned in the human body to the reproductive system; the anatomical cassette mechanically and fluidly connected to the frame assembly and fluidly connected to the hemodynamic simulator;
wherein the frame assembly is adapted to be a conduit through which simulated blood may flow between the hemodynamic simulator and the anatomical cassette; and
wherein the hemodynamic simulator is adapted to provide variable pressure flow of simulated blood to the arteries in the anatomical cassette and continuous pressure flow of simulated blood to the veins in the anatomical cassette; and
wherein the hemodynamic simulator is programmable to provide variable rates of simulated blood pulse and pressure.
15. A surgical simulator as in claim 14, wherein the reproductive system is the female reproductive system and the anatomical cassette comprises one or more of simulated uterus, ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, cervix, bladder, peritoneum, and omentum.



[Summary] Surgical Robot of Major Companies top




top

© nGene Hemodynamic Research Center 2013
Project nGene.org® is a registered trademark.